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Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of the Application of the Relevant Guarantee System of the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China [Effective]
最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国民法典》有关担保制度的解释 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
 
  
  
Announcement of the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国最高人民法院公告

The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of the Application of the Relevant Guarantee System of the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 1,824th session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 25, 2020, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on January 1, 2021. 《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国民法典〉有关担保制度的解释》已于2020年12月25日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1824次会议通过,现予公布,自2021年1月1日起施行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
December 31, 2020 2020年12月31日
Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of the Application of the Relevant Guarantee System of the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China 最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国民法典》有关担保制度的解释
(Adopted at the 1,824th session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 25, 2020, effective on January 1, 2021, No. 28 [2020] of the Supreme People's Court) (2020年12月25日最高人民法院审判委员会第1824次会议通过,自2021年1月1日起施行 法释〔2020〕28号)
For the purposes of correctly applying the provisions on the guarantee system of the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, this Interpretation is formulated in light of the practice of civil trials. 为正确适用《中华人民共和国民法典》有关担保制度的规定,结合民事审判实践,制定本解释。
I. General Provisions 

一、关于一般规定

Article 1 This Interpretation shall apply to any dispute arising from a mortgage, a pledge, a lien, suretyship, or any other guarantee. The relevant provisions of this Interpretation shall apply to any dispute arising from the function of guarantee involved in a sale subject to retention of ownership, a finance lease, factoring, or the like.   第一条 因抵押、质押、留置、保证等担保发生的纠纷,适用本解释。所有权保留买卖、融资租赁、保理等涉及担保功能发生的纠纷,适用本解释的有关规定。
Article 2 Where the parties agree in their guarantee contract that the validity of the guarantee contract is independent of the principal contract, or that the guarantor assumes the guarantor's liability with respect to the legal consequence of invalidity of the principal contract, the agreement on the independence of guarantee shall be invalid. The invalidity of the agreement on the independence of guarantee does not affect the validity of the guarantee contract, if the principal contract is valid; or the people's court shall determine that the guarantee contract is invalid, if the principal contract is invalid, unless otherwise provided by law.   第二条 当事人在担保合同中约定担保合同的效力独立于主合同,或者约定担保人对主合同无效的法律后果承担担保责任,该有关担保独立性的约定无效。主合同有效的,有关担保独立性的约定无效不影响担保合同的效力;主合同无效的,人民法院应当认定担保合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。
The Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning Trial of Independent Guarantee Disputes shall apply to any dispute arising from an independent guarantee issued by a financial institution. 因金融机构开立的独立保函发生的纠纷,适用《最高人民法院关于审理独立保函纠纷案件若干问题的规定》。
Article 3 Where the parties agree on special liability for breach of contract with respect to the assumption of guarantor's liability, or the agreed scope of guarantor's liability exceeds the scope of the liability which the debtor is required to assume, and the guarantor claims to assume liability only within the scope of the liability which the debtor is required to assume, the people's court shall uphold the claim.   第三条 当事人对担保责任的承担约定专门的违约责任,或者约定的担保责任范围超出债务人应当承担的责任范围,担保人主张仅在债务人应当承担的责任范围内承担责任的,人民法院应予支持。
If a guarantor assumes liability in excess of the scope of the liability which the debtor is required to assume and exercises recovery from the debtor, and the debtor claims to assume liability only within the scope of the liability which it is required to assume, the people's court shall uphold the claim; and if the guarantor requests that the creditor make restitution of the excess, the people's court shall uphold the request in accordance with the law. 担保人承担的责任超出债务人应当承担的责任范围,担保人向债务人追偿,债务人主张仅在其应当承担的责任范围内承担责任的,人民法院应予支持;担保人请求债权人返还超出部分的,人民法院依法予以支持。
Article 4 Where under any of the following circumstances, a party registers a security interest in the name of another person, and as the debtor fails to perform its debts as they become due, or falls under the circumstances under which the parties agree on the realization on the security interest, the creditor or its trustee claims priority of payment from the property, the people's court shall uphold the claim according to the law:   第四条 有下列情形之一,当事人将担保物权登记在他人名下,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人或者其受托人主张就该财产优先受偿的,人民法院依法予以支持:
(1) A security interest given to a bondholder is registered in the name of the bond trustee. (一)为债券持有人提供的担保物权登记在债券受托管理人名下;
(2) A security interest given to the trustor of an entrusted loan is registered in the name of the trustee. (二)为委托贷款人提供的担保物权登记在受托人名下;
(3) Other circumstances where a guarantor knows the existence of a trustor-trustee relationship between the creditor and another person. (三)担保人知道债权人与他人之间存在委托关系的其他情形。
Article 5 Where a state organ legal person gives a guarantee, other than for the use of a loan from any foreign government or international economic organization for on-lending with the approval of the State Council, the people's court shall determine that the guarantee contract is invalid.   第五条 机关法人提供担保的,人民法院应当认定担保合同无效,但是经国务院批准为使用外国政府或者国际经济组织贷款进行转贷的除外。
If an urban residents' committee or a villagers' committee gives a guarantee, the people's court shall determine that the guarantee contract is invalid, unless the villagers' committee which instead performs the functions of a village collective economic organization in accordance with the law externally gives a guarantee in accordance with the discussion and decision procedures established by the Villagers' Committee Organization Law. 居民委员会、村民委员会提供担保的,人民法院应当认定担保合同无效,但是依法代行村集体经济组织职能的村民委员会,依照村民委员会组织法规定的讨论决定程序对外提供担保的除外。
Article 6 Where a non-profit school, kindergarten, medical institution, elderly care institution, or the like for the purpose of public welfare gives a guarantee, the people's court shall determine that the guarantee contract is invalid, except under any of the following circumstances:   第六条 以公益为目的的非营利性学校、幼儿园、医疗机构、养老机构等提供担保的,人民法院应当认定担保合同无效,但是有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) At the time of the purchase or leasing under a finance lease of an educational facility, a medical and health facility, an elderly-care service facility, or any other public welfare facility, the seller or lessor charges the public welfare facility with retention of ownership as a guarantee for the realization of the price or rent. (一)在购入或者以融资租赁方式承租教育设施、医疗卫生设施、养老服务设施和其他公益设施时,出卖人、出租人为担保价款或者租金实现而在该公益设施上保留所有权;
(2) Any immovable or movable other than, or a property right other than in, an educational facility, a medical and health facility, an elderly-care service facility, or any other public welfare facility is charged with a security interest. (二)以教育设施、医疗卫生设施、养老服务设施和其他公益设施以外的不动产、动产或者财产权利设立担保物权。
If a school, kindergarten, medical institution, elderly care institution, or the like registered as a for-profit legal person gives a guarantee, and a party claims that the guarantee contract is invalid on the grounds that it is not qualified to give a guarantee, the people's court shall reject the claim. 登记为营利法人的学校、幼儿园、医疗机构、养老机构等提供担保,当事人以其不具有担保资格为由主张担保合同无效的,人民法院不予支持。
Article 7 Where the legal representative of a company represents the company in entering into a guarantee contract with the opposite party in excess of his or her authority, in violation of the provisions of the Company Law on the procedures for resolutions on companies' external guarantees, the people's court shall proceed in accordance with Articles 61 and 504 of the Civil Code and other provisions:   第七条 公司的法定代表人违反公司法关于公司对外担保决议程序的规定,超越权限代表公司与相对人订立担保合同,人民法院应当依照民法典第六十一条和第五百零四条等规定处理:
(1) If the opposite party acts in good faith, the guarantee contract shall be effective against the company; and if the opposite party requests that the company assume the guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the request. (一)相对人善意的,担保合同对公司发生效力;相对人请求公司承担担保责任的,人民法院应予支持。
(2) If the opposite party acts not in bad faith, the guarantee contract shall be without effect against the company; and if the opposite party requests that the company assume the guarantor's liability, the relevant provisions of Article 17 of this Interpretation shall apply mutatis mutandis. (二)相对人非善意的,担保合同对公司不发生效力;相对人请求公司承担赔偿责任的,参照适用本解释第十七条的有关规定。
If the legal representative causes loss to the company by giving a guarantee in excess of his or her authority, and the company requests that the legal representative assume compensatory liability, the people's court shall uphold the request. 法定代表人超越权限提供担保造成公司损失,公司请求法定代表人承担赔偿责任的,人民法院应予支持。
For the purpose of the first paragraph, "good faith" means that the opposite party neither knows nor should know at the time of entering into the guarantee contract that the legal representative exceeds his or her authority. If the opposite party has evidence of its reasonable examination of the company's resolution, the people's court shall determine that it acts in good faith, unless the company has evidence that the opposite party knows or should know that the resolution is forged or altered. 第一款所称善意,是指相对人在订立担保合同时不知道且不应当知道法定代表人超越权限。相对人有证据证明已对公司决议进行了合理审查,人民法院应当认定其构成善意,但是公司有证据证明相对人知道或者应当知道决议系伪造、变造的除外。
Article 8 Where under any of the following circumstances, a company claims that it has no guarantor's liability on the grounds of its failure to make a resolution in accordance with the provisions of the Company Law on the companies' external guarantees, the people's court shall reject the claim:   第八条 有下列情形之一,公司以其未依照公司法关于公司对外担保的规定作出决议为由主张不承担担保责任的,人民法院不予支持:
(1) A financial institution issues a letter of guarantee, or a guarantee company gives a guarantee. (一)金融机构开立保函或者担保公司提供担保;
(2) A company gives a guarantee for its wholly-owned subsidiary to conduct business activities. (二)公司为其全资子公司开展经营活动提供担保;
(3) The guarantee contract is signed and approved by shareholders who individually or jointly hold more than two-thirds of the voting rights of the company on the guarantee matter. (三)担保合同系由单独或者共同持有公司三分之二以上对担保事项有表决权的股东签字同意。
The subparagraphs (2) and (3) in the preceding paragraph shall not apply to the external giving of guarantees by a listed company. 上市公司对外提供担保,不适用前款第二项、第三项的规定。
Article 9 Where the opposite party enters into the guarantee contract with the listed company based on the information publicly disclosed by the listed company that the guarantee matter is approved under the resolution of the board of directors or the shareholders' meeting, and the opposite party claims that the guarantee contract is effective against the listed company, and the listed company assumes the guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the claim.   第九条 相对人根据上市公司公开披露的关于担保事项已经董事会或者股东大会决议通过的信息,与上市公司订立担保合同,相对人主张担保合同对上市公司发生效力,并由上市公司承担担保责任的,人民法院应予支持。
If the opposite party enters into a guarantee contract with a listed company other than based on information publicly disclosed by the listed company that the guarantee matter is approved under the resolution of the board of directors or the shareholders' meeting, and the listed company claims that the guarantee contract is without effect against it, and it has no guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the claim. 相对人未根据上市公司公开披露的关于担保事项已经董事会或者股东大会决议通过的信息,与上市公司订立担保合同,上市公司主张担保合同对其不发生效力,且不承担担保责任或者赔偿责任的,人民法院应予支持。
The provisions of the preceding two paragraphs shall apply to a guarantee contract between the opposite party and a publicly disclosed controlled subsidiary of the listed company, or between the opposite party and a company whose stock is traded on another national securities trading venue approved by the State Council. 相对人与上市公司已公开披露的控股子公司订立的担保合同,或者相对人与股票在国务院批准的其他全国性证券交易场所交易的公司订立的担保合同,适用前两款规定。
Article 10 Where a one-person limited liability company gives a guarantee for its shareholder, and claims that the company has no guarantor's liability on the grounds of violation of the provisions of the Company Law on the procedures for resolutions on companies' external guarantees, the people's court shall reject the claim. When a company assumes guarantor's liability, rendering it unable to pay other debts, if a shareholder at the time of giving the guarantee fails to prove that company property is independent of its own property, and another creditor requests that the shareholder be jointly and severally liable, the people's court shall uphold the request.   第十条 一人有限责任公司为其股东提供担保,公司以违反公司法关于公司对外担保决议程序的规定为由主张不承担担保责任的,人民法院不予支持。公司因承担担保责任导致无法清偿其他债务,提供担保时的股东不能证明公司财产独立于自己的财产,其他债权人请求该股东承担连带责任的,人民法院应予支持。
Article 11 Where a branch of a company externally gives a guarantee in its own name without a resolution of the members or shareholders' meeting or the board of directors of the company, and the opposite party requests that the company or its branch assume guarantor's liability, the people's court shall reject the request, except where the opposite party neither knows nor should know that the branch externally gives the guarantee in its own name in violation of the resolution procedures of the company.   第十一条 公司的分支机构未经公司股东(大)会或者董事会决议以自己的名义对外提供担保,相对人请求公司或者其分支机构承担担保责任的,人民法院不予支持,但是相对人不知道且不应当知道分支机构对外提供担保未经公司决议程序的除外。
If a branch of a financial institution issues a letter of guarantee within the business scope contained in its business license, or under the authority of a higher institution authorized to engage in guarantee business, and the financial institution or its branch claims that it has no guarantor's liability on the grounds of violation of the provisions of the Company Law on the procedures for resolutions on companies' external guarantees, the people's court shall reject the claim. If a branch of a financial institution gives a guarantee other than a letter of guarantee without the authority of the financial institution, and the financial institution or its branch claims that it has no guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the claim, except where the opposite party neither knows nor should know that the branch externally gives the guarantee without the authority of the financial institution. 金融机构的分支机构在其营业执照记载的经营范围内开立保函,或者经有权从事担保业务的上级机构授权开立保函,金融机构或者其分支机构以违反公司法关于公司对外担保决议程序的规定为由主张不承担担保责任的,人民法院不予支持。金融机构的分支机构未经金融机构授权提供保函之外的担保,金融机构或者其分支机构主张不承担担保责任的,人民法院应予支持,但是相对人不知道且不应当知道分支机构对外提供担保未经金融机构授权的除外。
If a branch of a guarantee company externally gives a guarantee without the authority of the guarantee company, and the guarantee company or its branch claims that it has no guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the claim, except where the opposite party neither knows nor should know that the branch externally gives the guarantee without the authority of the guarantee company. 担保公司的分支机构未经担保公司授权对外提供担保,担保公司或者其分支机构主张不承担担保责任的,人民法院应予支持,但是相对人不知道且不应当知道分支机构对外提供担保未经担保公司授权的除外。
If a branch of a company externally gives a guarantee, and the opposite party that acts not in good faith requests that the company assume compensatory liability, the relevant provisions of Article 17 of this Interpretation shall apply mutatis mutandis. 公司的分支机构对外提供担保,相对人非善意,请求公司承担赔偿责任的,参照本解释第十七条的有关规定处理。
Article 12 Where a legal representative joins in a debt in the name of the company in accordance with the provisions of Article 552 of the Civil Code, the people's court may determine the validity of the act in accordance with the rules established by this Interpretation in relation to the giving of a guarantee for another person by a company, mutatis mutandis.   第十二条 法定代表人依照民法典第五百五十二条的规定以公司名义加入债务的,人民法院在认定该行为的效力时,可以参照本解释关于公司为他人提供担保的有关规则处理。
Article 13 When not less than two third parties give a guarantee for the same debt, if the guarantors agree on recovery against each other and contributions, and a guarantor that has assumed guarantor's liability requests that the other guarantors make contributions as agreed, the people's court shall uphold the request; or if the guarantors agree on joint and several assumption of guarantor's liability, or on recovery against each other without specifying contributions, the guarantors shall share the part in proportion which cannot be recovered from the debtor.   第十三条 同一债务有两个以上第三人提供担保,担保人之间约定相互追偿及分担份额,承担了担保责任的担保人请求其他担保人按照约定分担份额的,人民法院应予支持;担保人之间约定承担连带共同担保,或者约定相互追偿但是未约定分担份额的,各担保人按照比例分担向债务人不能追偿的部分。
When not less than two third parties give a guarantee for the same debt, and the guarantors fail to agree on recovery against each other and on joint and several assumption of guarantor's liability, but each sign, seal, or affix their fingerprints to the same contract, if the guarantor that has assumed guarantor's liability requests that the other guarantors share the part in proportion which cannot be recovered from the debtor, the people's court shall uphold the request. 同一债务有两个以上第三人提供担保,担保人之间未对相互追偿作出约定且未约定承担连带共同担保,但是各担保人在同一份合同书上签字、盖章或者按指印,承担了担保责任的担保人请求其他担保人按照比例分担向债务人不能追偿部分的,人民法院应予支持。
Except under the circumstances specified in the preceding two paragraphs, if a guarantor that has assumed guarantor's liability requests that the other guarantors share the part in proportion which cannot be recovered from the debtor, the people's court shall reject the request. 除前两款规定的情形外,承担了担保责任的担保人请求其他担保人分担向债务人不能追偿部分的,人民法院不予支持。
Article 14 When not less than two third parties give a guarantee for the same debt, if a guarantor acquires the claim by assignment, the people's court shall determine that the act is the assumption of guarantor's liability. If the guarantor that acquires the claim by assignment requests as creditor that the other guarantors assume the guarantor's liability, the people's court shall reject the request; or if the guarantor requests that the other guarantors make corresponding contributions, the provisions of Article 13 of this Interpretation shall apply.   第十四条 同一债务有两个以上第三人提供担保,担保人受让债权的,人民法院应当认定该行为系承担担保责任。受让债权的担保人作为债权人请求其他担保人承担担保责任的,人民法院不予支持;该担保人请求其他担保人分担相应份额的,依照本解释第十三条的规定处理。
Article 15 For the purpose of mortgage guarantees, "maximum amount of claims" means claims including the principal claim, interest thereon, liquidated damages, damages, costs for keeping property given as a guarantee, and costs for realizing a claim or a security interest, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.   第十五条 最高额担保中的最高债权额,是指包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产的费用、实现债权或者实现担保物权的费用等在内的全部债权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
If a registered maximum amount of claims is inconsistent with the maximum amount of claims agreed by the parties, the people's court shall determine the scope of priority of payment to the creditors based on the registered maximum amount of claims. 登记的最高债权额与当事人约定的最高债权额不一致的,人民法院应当依据登记的最高债权额确定债权人优先受偿的范围。
Article 16 When the parties to a principal contract agree to take out a new loan to pay an old one, the people's court shall reject the request made by the creditor, if the creditor requests that the guarantor for the old loan assume guarantor's liability, or proceed according to the following circumstances, if the creditor requests the guarantor for the new loan to assume guarantor's liability:   第十六条 主合同当事人协议以新贷偿还旧贷,债权人请求旧贷的担保人承担担保责任的,人民法院不予支持;债权人请求新贷的担保人承担担保责任的,按照下列情形处理:
(1) If the guarantor for the new loan is the same as that for the old loan, the people's court shall uphold the request. (一)新贷与旧贷的担保人相同的,人民法院应予支持;
(2) If the guarantor for the new loan is not the same as that for the old loan, or the old loan is not guaranteed while the new loan is guaranteed, the people's court shall reject the request, unless the creditor has evidence that the guarantor for the new loan knows or should know the fact at time of giving the guarantee that a new loan is taken out to pay an old one. (二)新贷与旧贷的担保人不同,或者旧贷无担保新贷有担保的,人民法院不予支持,但是债权人有证据证明新贷的担保人提供担保时对以新贷偿还旧贷的事实知道或者应当知道的除外。
When the parties to the principal contract agree to take out a new loan to pay an old one, and the real guarantor of the old loan consents to continuing to give a guarantee for the new loan under the circumstance that the registration has not been canceled, and before the new loan contract is concluded, creates a security interest in the property given as a guarantee for another creditor, if the other creditor claims that its security interest ranks earlier than the creditor to which the new loan is owed, the people's court shall reject the claim. 主合同当事人协议以新贷偿还旧贷,旧贷的物的担保人在登记尚未注销的情形下同意继续为新贷提供担保,在订立新的贷款合同前又以该担保财产为其他债权人设立担保物权,其他债权人主张其担保物权顺位优先于新贷债权人的,人民法院不予支持。
Article 17 Where a principal contract is valid while the guarantee contract provided by a third party is invalid, the people's court shall determine the compensatory liability of the guarantor by distinguishing between different circumstances:   第十七条 主合同有效而第三人提供的担保合同无效,人民法院应当区分不同情形确定担保人的赔偿责任:
(1) If both the creditor and the guarantor are at fault, the compensatory liability of the guarantor shall not exceed one-half of the part which the debtor is unable to pay. (一)债权人与担保人均有过错的,担保人承担的赔偿责任不应超过债务人不能清偿部分的二分之一;
(2) If the guarantor is at fault while the creditor is not, the guarantor shall be liable for compensation for the part that the debtor is unable pay. (二)担保人有过错而债权人无过错的,担保人对债务人不能清偿的部分承担赔偿责任;
(3) If the creditor is at fault while the guarantor is not, the guarantor has no compensatory liability. (三)债权人有过错而担保人无过错的,担保人不承担赔偿责任。
When the invalidity of the principal contract results in the invalidity of the guarantee contract provided by the third party, the guarantor has no compensatory liability, if it is at fault, or the compensatory liability which it assumes shall not exceed one-half of the part which the debtor is unable to pay, if the guarantor is at fault. 主合同无效导致第三人提供的担保合同无效,担保人无过错的,不承担赔偿责任;担保人有过错的,其承担的赔偿责任不应超过债务人不能清偿部分的三分之一。
Article 18 Where a guarantor who has assumed the guarantor's liability or compensatory liability exercises recovery against the debtor within the scope of the liability assumed by the guarantor, the people's court shall uphold the recovery.   第十八条 承担了担保责任或者赔偿责任的担保人,在其承担责任的范围内向债务人追偿的,人民法院应予支持。
When a claim is guaranteed by both the real guarantee given by the debtor itself and the guarantee given by a third party, if the third party who has assumed the guarantor's or compensatory liability makes a claim for exercise of the security interest the creditor has against the debtor, the people's court shall uphold the claim. 同一债权既有债务人自己提供的物的担保,又有第三人提供的担保,承担了担保责任或者赔偿责任的第三人,主张行使债权人对债务人享有的担保物权的,人民法院应予支持。
Article 19 When a guarantee contract is invalid, if the guarantor who has assumed the compensatory liability requests by the counter-guarantee contract, to the extent of the compensatory liability assumed by it, that the counter-guarantor assume the guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the request.   第十九条 担保合同无效,承担了赔偿责任的担保人按照反担保合同的约定,在其承担赔偿责任的范围内请求反担保人承担担保责任的,人民法院应予支持。
If the counter-guarantee contract is invalid, the relevant provisions of Article 17 of this Interpretation shall apply. If a party claims that the counter-guarantee contract is invalid on the grounds that the guarantee contract is invalid, the people's court shall reject the claim. 反担保合同无效的,依照本解释第十七条的有关规定处理。当事人仅以担保合同无效为由主张反担保合同无效的,人民法院不予支持。
Article 20 When trying a dispute over a real guarantee given by a third party, the people's court may apply the provisions on guarantee contracts of paragraph 1 of Articles 695, paragraph 1 of Article 696, paragraph 2 of Article 697, Article 699, Article 700, Article 701, and Article 702, among others, of the Civil Code.   第二十条 人民法院在审理第三人提供的物的担保纠纷案件时,可以适用民法典第六百九十五条第一款、第六百九十六条第一款、第六百九十七条第二款、第六百九十九条、第七百条、第七百零一条、第七百零二条等关于保证合同的规定。
Article 21 Where a principal contract or guarantee contract contains an arbitration clause, the people's court shall have no jurisdiction over a dispute between the parties to the contract containing the arbitration clause.   第二十一条 主合同或者担保合同约定了仲裁条款的,人民法院对约定仲裁条款的合同当事人之间的纠纷无管辖权。
If the creditor sues the debtor and the guarantor together, the competent court shall be determined in accordance with the principal contract. 债权人一并起诉债务人和担保人的,应当根据主合同确定管辖法院。
If the creditor only sues the guarantor as permitted by law, the competent court shall be determined in accordance with the guarantee contract. 债权人依法可以单独起诉担保人且仅起诉担保人的,应当根据担保合同确定管辖法院。
Article 22 Where after the people's court has accepted a debtor's bankruptcy case, the creditor requests that the guarantor assume guarantor's liability, and the guarantor claims that the guaranteed debt ceases to accrue interest on the day when the people's court accepted the bankruptcy petition, the people's court shall uphold the claim of the guarantor.   第二十二条 人民法院受理债务人破产案件后,债权人请求担保人承担担保责任,担保人主张担保债务自人民法院受理破产申请之日起停止计息的,人民法院对担保人的主张应予支持。
Article 23 Where the people's court accepts a debtor's bankruptcy case, and the creditor brings an action in the people's court after reporting creditor's rights in the bankruptcy proceedings, requesting that the guarantor assume guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the request in accordance with law.   第二十三条 人民法院受理债务人破产案件,债权人在破产程序中申报债权后又向人民法院提起诉讼,请求担保人承担担保责任的,人民法院依法予以支持。
The guarantor may, after paying all the creditor's rights, be paid in place of the creditor in the bankruptcy proceedings; and before the full payment of the creditor's rights, the guarantor may not be paid in place of the creditor in the bankruptcy proceedings, but shall have the right to request to the extent of the guarantor's liability assumed by the guarantor that the creditor make restitution the excess over the creditor's rights of the total payment received by the creditor by bankruptcy distribution, realization of the guaranteed creditor's rights, and other means. 担保人清偿债权人的全部债权后,可以代替债权人在破产程序中受偿;在债权人的债权未获全部清偿前,担保人不得代替债权人在破产程序中受偿,但是有权就债权人通过破产分配和实现担保债权等方式获得清偿总额中超出债权的部分,在其承担担保责任的范围内请求债权人返还。
If the creditor that is not fully paid in the debtor's bankruptcy proceedings requests that the guarantor continue to assume guarantor's liability, the people's court shall uphold the request; and if the guarantor that has assumed guarantor's liability exercises recovery against the debtor after the completion of performance of a composition or reorganization plan, the people's court shall reject the recovery. 债权人在债务人破产程序中未获全部清偿,请求担保人继续承担担保责任的,人民法院应予支持;担保人承担担保责任后,向和解协议或者重整计划执行完毕后的债务人追偿的,人民法院不予支持。
Article 24 Where a creditor that knows or should know that the debtor is bankrupt neither reports creditor's rights nor notifies the guarantor, rendering the guarantor unable to exercise the right of recovery in advance, the guarantor shall be exempt from guarantor's liability to the extent of the possible payment of the creditor's rights in the bankruptcy proceedings, unless the guarantor fails to exercise the right of recovery through its fault.   第二十四条 债权人知道或者应当知道债务人破产,既未申报债权也未通知担保人,致使担保人不能预先行使追偿权的,担保人就该债权在破产程序中可能受偿的范围内免除担保责任,但是担保人因自身过错未行使追偿权的除外。
II. Contracts of Suretyship 

二、关于保证合同

Article 25 Where the parties make a stipulation in a contract of suretyship to the effect that the surety assumes suretyship liability only when the debtor is unable to perform the debt or becomes insolvent, indicating the declaration of will that the debtor shall assume the liability first, the people's court shall determine it as ordinary suretyship.   第二十五条 当事人在保证合同中约定了保证人在债务人不能履行债务或者无力偿还债务时才承担保证责任等类似内容,具有债务人应当先承担责任的意思表示的,人民法院应当将其认定为一般保证。
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