May 31, 2010
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Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data [Effective]
国务院关于印发促进大数据发展行动纲要的通知 [现行有效]

Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data 国务院关于印发促进大数据发展行动纲要的通知
(No. 50 [2015] of the State Council) (国发〔2015〕50号)

The people's governments of all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government; all ministries and commissions of the State Council; and all institutions directly under the State Council: 各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
The Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data is hereby issued to you for your conscientious compliance and implementation. 现将《促进大数据发展行动纲要》印发给你们,请认真贯彻落实。
State Council 


August 31, 2015 2015年8月31日

Action Outline for Promoting the Development of Big Data 


Big data refers to data sets characterized by high volume, more varieties, high velocity, and high application value, and is rapidly developing into a new generation of information technology and service type for collection, storage, and correlation analysis of huge amounts of data from disparate sources and in various formats whereby we can discover new knowledge, create new value, and improve the capabilities. 大数据是以容量大、类型多、存取速度快、应用价值高为主要特征的数据集合,正快速发展为对数量巨大、来源分散、格式多样的数据进行采集、存储和关联分析,从中发现新知识、创造新价值、提升新能力的新一代信息技术和服务业态。
The integration of information technologies with economy and society has led to a rapid growth of data. Data has become a basic strategic resource, and big data is increasingly having a significant impact on global production, circulation, distribution and consumption activities as well as the economic operation mechanism, social lifestyle, and the state's capacity in governance. At present, China has laid certain foundations for the development and application of big data with market advantages and development potential, but it is urgent to resolve such problems as inadequate opening and sharing of government data, weak industrial base, lack of top-level design and overall planning, the development lag of laws and regulations, and limited areas of innovation and application. This Action Outline is hereby developed for the purpose of effectively implementing the decisions and deployments of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, comprehensively promoting the development and application of big data in China, and accelerating the construction of a powerful data nation. 信息技术与经济社会的交汇融合引发了数据迅猛增长,数据已成为国家基础性战略资源,大数据正日益对全球生产、流通、分配、消费活动以及经济运行机制、社会生活方式和国家治理能力产生重要影响。目前,我国在大数据发展和应用方面已具备一定基础,拥有市场优势和发展潜力,但也存在政府数据开放共享不足、产业基础薄弱、缺乏顶层设计和统筹规划、法律法规建设滞后、创新应用领域不广等问题,亟待解决。为贯彻落实党中央、国务院决策部署,全面推进我国大数据发展和应用,加快建设数据强国,特制定本行动纲要。
I. Recent developments and significance   一、发展形势和重要意义
Globally, the utilization of big data for promotion of economic development, improvement of social governance, and enhancement of governments' service and regulatory capacities is becoming a trend, and relevant developed countries have developed documents on the implementation of big data strategies to vigorously promote the development and application of big data. At present, China's Internet and mobile Internet users ranks first in the world, and China has rich data resources and application market advantages, and has made breakthroughs in the research and development of some key big data technologies. A group of innovative Internet enterprises and innovative applications have emerged. Some local governments have initiated the work related to big data. Adhering to innovation-driven growth, accelerating the deployment of big data, and deepening the application of big data have become internal needs and an inevitable choice for ensuring steady growth, promoting reform, adjusting structure, improving people's livelihood, and promoting the modernization of governance. 全球范围内,运用大数据推动经济发展、完善社会治理、提升政府服务和监管能力正成为趋势,有关发达国家相继制定实施大数据战略性文件,大力推动大数据发展和应用。目前,我国互联网、移动互联网用户规模居全球第一,拥有丰富的数据资源和应用市场优势,大数据部分关键技术研发取得突破,涌现出一批互联网创新企业和创新应用,一些地方政府已启动大数据相关工作。坚持创新驱动发展,加快大数据部署,深化大数据应用,已成为稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生和推动政府治理能力现代化的内在需要和必然选择。
1. Big data becomes a new impetus to promote the economic development and transformation. Leading the technology flow, material flow, funds flow and talent flow via data flow will have profound impacts on the organizational model of the social division of work and cooperation, and promote the intensiveness and innovation of production and organizational modes. Big data promotes the network sharing, intensive integration, collaborative development, and efficient utilization of social production factors, and as a result, has changed the traditional mode of production and economic operational mechanism and significantly improved the level and efficiency of economic operation. Big data continuously inspires the innovation of business models and keeps creating new business types, and has become an important driving force in promoting added-value and innovative services and improving the core values of enterprises in the Internet and other emerging fields. The big data industry is becoming a new economic growth engine and will have significant impacts on the future patterns of the information industry. (一)大数据成为推动经济转型发展的新动力。以数据流引领技术流、物质流、资金流、人才流,将深刻影响社会分工协作的组织模式,促进生产组织方式的集约和创新。大数据推动社会生产要素的网络化共享、集约化整合、协作化开发和高效化利用,改变了传统的生产方式和经济运行机制,可显著提升经济运行水平和效率。大数据持续激发商业模式创新,不断催生新业态,已成为互联网等新兴领域促进业务创新增值、提升企业核心价值的重要驱动力。大数据产业正在成为新的经济增长点,将对未来信息产业格局产生重要影响。
2. Big data offers a new opportunity to reshape the competitive advantage of nations. Within the overall context of a rapid development of global information technology, big data has become an important fundamental strategic resource of nations and is leading a new round of scientific and technological innovation. Taking China's full advantage in data scale to synchronically improve the scale, quality, and application of data, and mine and release the potential value of data resources will be conducive to better playing the strategic role of data resources, enhancing protection capacity for cyberspace data sovereignty, safeguarding national security, and effectively improving China's national competitiveness. (二)大数据成为重塑国家竞争优势的新机遇。在全球信息化快速发展的大背景下,大数据已成为国家重要的基础性战略资源,正引领新一轮科技创新。充分利用我国的数据规模优势,实现数据规模、质量和应用水平同步提升,发掘和释放数据资源的潜在价值,有利于更好发挥数据资源的战略作用,增强网络空间数据主权保护能力,维护国家安全,有效提升国家竞争力。
3. Big data creates a new way of improving the governance system of the governments. The application of big data can reveal the correlation relationship that is difficult to be represented by traditional technologies and methods, advance the opening and sharing of government data, and promote the integration of data and resources of social cause, which will dramatically improve the whole data analytical capacity of the governments and provide new methods to effectively resolve complex social issues. The establishment of a management mechanism of “talking, decision-making, management and innovation based on data” and the realization of data-based scientific decision-making will promote progress in the management concept and social governance mode of the governments, accelerate the construction of an innovative, clean and service-oriented government ruled by law that is commensurate with the socialist market economy system and the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and gradually achieve the modernization of the governance capacity of the governments. (三)大数据成为提升政府治理能力的新途径。大数据应用能够揭示传统技术方式难以展现的关联关系,推动政府数据开放共享,促进社会事业数据融合和资源整合,将极大提升政府整体数据分析能力,为有效处理复杂社会问题提供新的手段。建立“用数据说话、用数据决策、用数据管理、用数据创新”的管理机制,实现基于数据的科学决策,将推动政府管理理念和社会治理模式进步,加快建设与社会主义市场经济体制和中国特色社会主义事业发展相适应的法治政府、创新政府、廉洁政府和服务型政府,逐步实现政府治理能力现代化。
II. Guiding ideology and overall objectives   二、指导思想和总体目标
1. Guiding ideology. We shall thoroughly implement the guidelines of the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and the Second, Third, and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee, and according to the arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, allow the market to play a decisive role in allocating human resources, strengthen top-level design and overall coordination, vigorously promote the interconnection and open sharing of government information systems with public data, accelerate the integration of government information platforms, eliminate information silos, open data resources to the public, strengthen the government's credibility, guide social development, and serve public enterprises. We shall take enterprises as market players, create a relaxed and fair environment, intensify the research and development of key big data technologies, industry development and talent training, accelerate data collection and mining, deepen big data innovation and application in various industries, and promote the healthy development of the big data industry. The legal and standard systems will be improved to utilize big data in a scientific and standardized manner and effectively protect data security. By promoting big data development, we will accelerate the construction of a a powerful data nation, release technology dividends, institutional dividends, and innovation dividends, improve the governance capacity of governments, and promote economic restructuring and upgrading. (一)指导思想。深入贯彻党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中全会精神,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,加强顶层设计和统筹协调,大力推动政府信息系统和公共数据互联开放共享,加快政府信息平台整合,消除信息孤岛,推进数据资源向社会开放,增强政府公信力,引导社会发展,服务公众企业;以企业为主体,营造宽松公平环境,加大大数据关键技术研发、产业发展和人才培养力度,着力推进数据汇集和发掘,深化大数据在各行业创新应用,促进大数据产业健康发展;完善法规制度和标准体系,科学规范利用大数据,切实保障数据安全。通过促进大数据发展,加快建设数据强国,释放技术红利、制度红利和创新红利,提升政府治理能力,推动经济转型升级。
2. Overall objectives. Based on China's nation situations and actual needs, the following objectives in the development and application of big data are expected to be promoted to be gradually achieved in the upcoming five to ten years: (二)总体目标。立足我国国情和现实需要,推动大数据发展和应用在未来5-10年逐步实现以下目标:
To create a new mode of social governance with precise management and multi-dimensional cooperation. Big data will be used as an important means to enhance the governance capacity, and through the efficient collection, effective integration, and further application of government data and social data, to improve the government's decision-making and risk prevention capacities, enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of social governance, and strengthen rural society governance; provide assistance in the streamlining of administrative procedures and decentralization of powers, support the transformation from pre-approval to interim and ex post regulation, and promote the commercial system reform; promote the dynamic integration of government supervision and social supervision, and effectively mobilize social forces to actively participate in social governance. By the end of 2017, data resources are expected to be shared across government departments. 打造精准治理、多方协作的社会治理新模式。将大数据作为提升政府治理能力的重要手段,通过高效采集、有效整合、深化应用政府数据和社会数据,提升政府决策和风险防范水平,提高社会治理的精准性和有效性,增强乡村社会治理能力;助力简政放权,支持从事前审批向事中事后监管转变,推动商事制度改革;促进政府监管和社会监督有机结合,有效调动社会力量参与社会治理的积极性。2017年底前形成跨部门数据资源共享共用格局。
To establish a new mechanism for the smooth, safe and efficient functioning of the economy. Big data will be fully utilized to continuously improve the access to and use of data resources in areas such as credit, finance, banking, taxation, agriculture, statistics, import and export, resources and environment, product quality, and business registration, enrich the data sources of economic statistics, achieve more accurate monitoring, analysis, forecasting, early warning of economic operation, improve the pertinence, science, and timeliness of decision-making, improve macro-control and administrative efficiency in terms of industrial development, credit system, and market supervision, ensure a supply and demand balance, and keep the smooth functioning of the economy. 建立运行平稳、安全高效的经济运行新机制。充分运用大数据,不断提升信用、财政、金融、税收、农业、统计、进出口、资源环境、产品质量、企业登记监管等领域数据资源的获取和利用能力,丰富经济统计数据来源,实现对经济运行更为准确的监测、分析、预测、预警,提高决策的针对性、科学性和时效性,提升宏观调控以及产业发展、信用体系、市场监管等方面管理效能,保障供需平衡,促进经济平稳运行。
To build a new people-oriented system serving people's livelihood and benefiting all citizens. With the focus on the construction of a service-oriented government, the application of big data shall be promoted comprehensively in such fields as public utilities, municipal administration, urban and rural environment, rural life, health care, disaster relief, social assistance, elderly care services, employment, social security, culture and education, transportation and tourism, quality safety, protection of consumer rights, and community services. Big data will be utilized to provide insight into people's needs, optimize the allocation of resources, enrich services, increase service channels, expand the scope of services, improve service quality, enhance a city's ripple-effect capacity, promote public services to be provided at the basic levels, narrow the gap between urban and rural areas as well as regional disparities, promote the formation of a fair, inclusive, convenient, and efficient system serving people's livelihood, and continuously meet the people's increasingly personalized and diversified needs. 构建以人为本、惠及全民的民生服务新体系。围绕服务型政府建设,在公用事业、市政管理、城乡环境、农村生活、健康医疗、减灾救灾、社会救助、养老服务、劳动就业、社会保障、文化教育、交通旅游、质量安全、消费维权、社区服务等领域全面推广大数据应用,利用大数据洞察民生需求,优化资源配置,丰富服务内容,拓展服务渠道,扩大服务范围,提高服务质量,提升城市辐射能力,推动公共服务向基层延伸,缩小城乡、区域差距,促进形成公平普惠、便捷高效的民生服务体系,不断满足人民群众日益增长的个性化、多样化需求。
To create a new innovation-driven pattern of business startups and innovations from all walks of life. Legal and policy systems for the opening and sharing of public data resources in a reasonable and moderate manner will be developed, and a national unified open platform for government data will be established by the end of 2018 to make public data resources available to the public in a reasonable and moderate manner first in such major fields as credit, transportation, medical care, health, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, resources, agriculture, environment, safety supervision, finance, quality, statistics, meteorology, oceanography, and registration and supervision of enterprises, so as drive the public to conduct value-added, non-profit big data development and innovative applications, fully release dividends from data, and inspire the vitality of business startups and innovations from all walks of life. 开启大众创业、万众创新的创新驱动新格局。形成公共数据资源合理适度开放共享的法规制度和政策体系,2018年底前建成国家政府数据统一开放平台,率先在信用、交通、医疗、卫生、就业、社保、地理、文化、教育、科技、资源、农业、环境、安监、金融、质量、统计、气象、海洋、企业登记监管等重要领域实现公共数据资源合理适度向社会开放,带动社会公众开展大数据增值性、公益性开发和创新应用,充分释放数据红利,激发大众创业、万众创新活力。
To cultivate a high-end, smart, emerging, prosperous new ecosystem for industry development. The integrated development of big data and cloud computing, the Internet of things, mobile Internet, and other new generation of information technology will be promoted, new industry types and new modes of coordinated development of big data and traditional industries will be explored, the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and the growth of emerging industries will be promoted, and new economic growth points will be created. A group of products, systems, and solutions that meet the needs of major big data applications shall be developed, and a secure and reliable big data technology system will be established. Big data products and services will reach the international advanced standards with significantly increased domestic market share. A group of globally oriented backbone enterprises and innovative small- and medium-sized enterprises with distinctive features will be cultivated. A big data industry ecosystem with multi-lateral interconnection and coordinated development of governments, enterprises, universities, and research institutions will be built. 培育高端智能、新兴繁荣的产业发展新生态。推动大数据与云计算、物联网、移动互联网等新一代信息技术融合发展,探索大数据与传统产业协同发展的新业态、新模式,促进传统产业转型升级和新兴产业发展,培育新的经济增长点。形成一批满足大数据重大应用需求的产品、系统和解决方案,建立安全可信的大数据技术体系,大数据产品和服务达到国际先进水平,国内市场占有率显著提高。培育一批面向全球的骨干企业和特色鲜明的创新型中小企业。构建形成政产学研用多方联动、协调发展的大数据产业生态体系。
III Main Tasks   三、主要任务
1. Accelerating the opening and sharing of government data, promoting the integration of resources, and enhancing the governance capacity. (一)加快政府数据开放共享,推动资源整合,提升治理能力。
(1) Vigorously promoting the data sharing of government departments. Top-level design and overall planning shall be strengthened, and the scope and use method of data sharing between departments shall be specified, and the duties and rights of data management and sharing of each department shall be clarified. By relying on an unified government data exchange and sharing platform, the cross-departmental and cross-regional sharing of basic national data resources including the national population basic information database, the legal person information resource database, and the natural resources and geo-spatial information database, as well as information systems of taxation administration, customs, finance management, audit, public security, macro economy, social security, land resources, agriculture, water resources, and quality supervision, inspection and quarantine, etc. shall be vigorously promoted. The interconnection and information sharing of the credit information systems of all regions, departments, relevant enterprises and public institutions, and social organizations shall be accelerated, rich credit information services shall be provided to the public, and the government service and regulatory level shall be improved. In light of the implementation of the project of benefiting people with information technologies and the construction of smart cities, central departments and local governments shall be promoted to work together to jointly launch pilot programs and achieve the data sharing, and institutional integration, collaboration, and cooperation in public services. 1.大力推动政府部门数据共享。加强顶层设计和统筹规划,明确各部门数据共享的范围边界和使用方式,厘清各部门数据管理及共享的义务和权利,依托政府数据统一共享交换平台,大力推进国家人口基础信息库、法人单位信息资源库、自然资源和空间地理基础信息库等国家基础数据资源,以及金税、金关、金财、金审、金盾、金宏、金保、金土、金农、金水、金质等信息系统跨部门、跨区域共享。加快各地区、各部门、各有关企事业单位及社会组织信用信息系统的互联互通和信息共享,丰富面向公众的信用信息服务,提高政府服务和监管水平。结合信息惠民工程实施和智慧城市建设,推动中央部门与地方政府条块结合、联合试点,实现公共服务的多方数据共享、制度对接和协同配合。
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